LES 14 POINTS DE WILSON

In his war address à Congress on April 2, 1917, chairman Woodrow Wilson spoke ns the need parce que le the unified States venir enter thé war in part to “make auto world safe for democracy.” virtually a year later, this sentiment remained strong, articulated in a speech to Congress nous January 8, 1918, where hey introduced his Fourteen Points.

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Designed oui guidelines à la the rebuilding de the postwar world, the points included Wilson’s ideas about nations’ conduct of foreign policy, consisting of freedom du the seas et free trade and the concept of denchères self-determination, with thé achievement de this through the dismantling de European empires et the création of new states. Most importantly, however, was alloue 14, i m sorry called parce que le a “general combinaison of nations” the would market “mutual guarantees ns political independence and territorial integrity to great and small nations alike.” when Wilson left parce que le Paris in December 1918, hey was established that thé Fourteen Points, and his league of nation (as the association of nations was known), be incorporated into thé peace settlements.


Wilson"s Fourteen Points

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Pamphlet listing Wilson"s Fourteen points (Click la peinture to enlarge.)


The Points, Summarized


1.
open diplomacy without secret treaties2. économique free trade nous the seas during war and peace3. same trade conditions4. diminish armaments among all nations5. change colonial claims6. Evacuation of all Central strength from Russia et allow ce to define its own independence7. Belgium venir be evacuated and restored8. Return de Alsace-Lorraine region and toutes les personnes French territories
9.

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Readjust Italian borders10. Austria-Hungary à be provided an opportunity for self-determination11. Redraw thé borders ns the Balkan an ar creating Roumania, Serbia and Montenegro12. creation of a Turkish state through guaranteed totally free trade in the Dardanelles13. création of an independent Polish state14. creation of the ligue of Nations

President Wilson’s insistence nous the l’inclusion of the ligue of nations in the Treaty ns Versailles (the negotiation with Germany) compelled him venir compromise through Allied leaders nous the other points. Japan, à la example, to be granted autorité over structure German are in China, and self-determination—an idea seized upon by those living under de linterne rule transparent Asia and Africa—was seul applied to Europe. Following thé signing ns the Treaty du Versailles, Wilson went back to the United States et presented cette to the Senate.

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Although numerous Americans supported thé treaty, auto president endroit resistance in the Senate, in aller over problem that involvement the league of nations would renforcer U.S. Authorized in european affairs. A dozen jaune so Republican “Irreconcilables” refuse to soutien it outright, while other Republican senators, led par Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, insisted nous amendments that would preserve U.S. Sovereignty et congressional authority to explain war. Having compromised in Paris, Wilson refused venir compromise at home et took his feelings to the American people, hoping the they could impacter the senators’ votes. Unfortunately, the president endured a debilitating punch while conditions météorologiques tour.

The loss de presidential leadership linked with ongoing refusal nous both sides to compromise, directif Senate to reject auto Treaty ns Versailles, and thus the ligue of Nations. Despite auto lack of U.S. Participation, however, the ligue of nation worked venir address et mitigate dispute in the 1920s et 1930s. When not constantly successful, et ultimately unable to prevent a seconde world war, the ligue served oui the basis parce que le the united Nations, an international organization still present today.

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